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  1. #16
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    This section deals with the creation of Apartheid in South Africa and its ultimate, inevitable end - relying as it did upon Black labor over which a White minority tried to enforce social segregation.

    THE 1913 Land Act DIVIDES THE LAND BETWEEN BLACK AND WHITE

    In 1910, the Union of South Africa was created under British rule, out of the two former Boer Republics of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal, together with the already established British colonies of Natal and the Cape.

    The new Parliament, created as a result of the Union, was dominated by a party led by former Boer war generals. In 1913, they turned their attention to the issue of the reserved Black areas, and, following the American example with the Amerinds, formally enshrined the right of Blacks in these tribal areas. This was the Land Act of 1913, which also had one rider: they prohibited Blacks from owning any land outside of these now formalized homelands.

    The ruling party also had as its theme reconciliation between Boer and Brit. This attempt to create unity on racial grounds, trying to bridge the cultural/ethnic differences, led to the creation of a new generic term for all Whites living in the Union of South Africa: South Africans. The terminology Boer and Brit was dispensed with. The Dutch language had in the interim started to develop a form of its own, and became known as Afrikaans: and those who spoke it were called Afrikaners, no matter if they were originally Boers or Dutch speakers who lived in the British ruled Cape and Natal before the Anglo-Boer War.

    National Party Founded in 1914

    The attempt to create White unity was however rejected by a significant number of English and Afrikaans speakers. One Boer general, James Hertzog, founded a new party in 1914, the National Party (NP) which was to play a leading role in South African history for the next 80 years. Hertzog demanded that the Afrikaans language - which was still not recognized, with English being the official language of the country, be granted equal status with English, and that the country have its own flag, and not the British flag. These aims were only to be achieved in the middle 1920's.

    World War One and the Boer Rebellion of 1914

    The outbreak of the First World War split the Whites even further: fueled not so much by a pro-German sentiment, but rather by an anti-British sentiment, many Afrikaans speakers refused to support the South African government's decision to declare war on Germany.

    A number of Boer leaders started a rebellion in the year that the war broke out, demanding the restoration of the Boer Republics, obviously hoping to capitalize upon the British being distracted by having to meet the demands of a war in Europe.

    The South African government - still in the hands of the pro-reconciliation Afrikaans speakers - suppressed the rebellion, which saw the deaths of a number of its ringleaders. Despite the violence, the NP still polled well in the 1915 election, although not enough to dislodge the pro-reconciliation grouping which had drawn more English speaking support after entering the war on the side of Britain.

    The first engagement of the war from the South African side was the occupation of German South West Africa, a territory which would be mandated to South Africa by the League of Nations after the First World War. This territory would later become known as South West Africa, and be the scene of a major race war between White South Africa and Black insurgents. (Still later the territory would become the country of Namibia). The South African army - which was recruited on a volunteer basis - then went on to participate in the occupation of the German East Africa - today Tanzania.

    South African troops also fought in large numbers on the Western Front in France, fighting in the Battles of Delville Wood, Paschendale and many other famous and bloody clashes.

    The Racist Communists and the White Revolt of 1921

    The whole country was therefore split three ways: between English speakers, Afrikaans speakers and Blacks, with neither of the two White groupings wanting to integrate with the Black group. So it was that even the South African Communist Party, started largely by South African Jews based in Cape Town, initially directed itself openly only to White workers.

    In 1921, leaders of the country's gold-mining industry decided to replace White labor with Black and Chinese laborers in an effort to cut costs. This move led to a major uprising in March 1921 called the Rand Revolt, led initially by the Communist Party with the official slogan of "White Workers Unite for a White South Africa" - the sight of this slogan along with the hammer and sickle flag was for long afterwards a great source of embarrassment for the Communist Party, which soon thereafter devoted itself to attacking the White power structure and started enrolling Blacks as members. (A photograph exists of this famous slogan being prominently displayed on a banner during a main Communist march during the Rand revolt.)



    Above: Racist Communists organize the 1922 Rand Strike, under the banner (seen in the crowd bottom left, and a close-up view alongside) "Workers Unite for a White South Africa." The strike was organized against the capitalist mine owner's plan to bring in cheap non-White labor to replace more expensive Whites on the gold mines, and erupted into a full scale rebellion. Shortly afterwards, the Communist International instructed the SA Communist party to drop its racist line and become focused on helping the Black cause in South Africa, a task it dutifully fulfilled. Needless to say, the overtly racist approach of the early SA Communist Party is ignored by that party in present times.

    The revolt was suppressed at a cost of 200 dead, with the fledgling South African air force (the second oldest such force in the world, being started shortly after the British Royal Air Force) bombing rebel strongholds in Johannesburg.

    National Party in Power

    Although the revolt was crushed, three years later, during the 1924 election, the National Party came to power for the first time, mainly on election undertakings to protect White workers from non-White laborers taking their jobs. Race had become an important electoral issue for the first time.

    Shortly after taking power, the NP government duly introduced the first color bar legislation, which prevented Blacks from being employed in certain categories of jobs, these being reserved for Whites only.

    The Great Depression and World War Two

    The NP remained in power alone till 1933, when the effects of the Great Depression forced a coalition government with the pro-reconciliation faction under the former Boer War general Jan Smuts. This coalition ruled till the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939.

    When the Second World War broke out, certain small factions of Afrikaners were decidedly pro-Hitler and had even formed tiny Nazi parties, none of whom received any significant electoral support. A bare majority of the South African Parliament voted in favor of entering the war on Britain's side: as a result the coalition government broke down and the NP went into opposition, having voted against going to war for Britain.

    Outside of Parliament, militant Afrikaners organized themselves into a movement known as the "Flaming Ox Wagon Sentinel" and through this organization engaged in numerous acts of sabotage and violence in an attempt to keep the country's volunteer army deployed internally, rather than being used against the Germans and for the British.

    South African troops fought against the Italians in Abyssinia, and in North Africa as part of the British Eighth Army, taking part in numerous famous battles such as El Alamein. They then went to take part in the invasion of Italy in 1943, fighting at Monte Casino, being part of the occupation troops in Rome and ending the war in northern Italy. The South African prime minister, Jan Smuts, was instrumental in founding the United Nations and helped to draft its founding charter.

    The Election of 1948

    In 1948, an election alliance between the NP and a number of smaller factions succeeded in ousting the Smuts government, despite the former winning a minority of votes (the skewed first past the post Westminster electoral system allowed Smuts to gain the larger number of votes but the fewer seats).

    Above: DF Malan, the National Party leader who barely won the 1948 general election in South Africa, on a pledge to the all-White voters to enforce the policy of Apartheid, or strict social segregation.

    It is from the election of 1948, that Apartheid, or the policy of racial segregation, is deemed to have become official policy in South Africa. The reality is however that segregation and the recognition and creation of Black tribal homelands had preceded 1948 by centuries.

    The very first segregation had in fact occurred soon after the first Dutch settlement at the Cape in 1652: in 1653, the Dutch had planted a particularly large hedge to mark the border between their territory and Hottentot/Bushman territory (parts of this massive hedge can still be seen in Cape Town) and the formal recognition of the Black tribal homelands by the British authorities has already been discussed. In fact, all the National Party did in 1948, was make statutory a de facto situation, and very little else.

    At the time this was perfectly in line with developments elsewhere in the world, especially in America where legislation also governed the access of Blacks to certain public places, schools and the like. The first "Whites Only" signs only appeared in South Africa long after they had first appeared in America.

    The NP set about further imitating many American states by outlawing racially-mixed marriages, instituting a system of racial classification and finally, by legislation, defined residential and business areas for the different races.
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    Black Resistance

    The Communist Party had in the interim renounced its racist past and worked full time against the White government, organizing trade unions and strikes. In 1950, the White government passed the Suppression of Communism Act, which outlawed the Communist Party - an act which was only repealed in 1990. The main Black resistance movement was started in 1912 - the African National Congress, which would later go on to become the government of South Africa at the end of the era of White rule. The ANC would form a firm alliance with the SA Communist Party throughout its years of struggle against the White government, and for many years after its assumption of power as well.

    WHITE POLITICIANS MISS THE Real Issue - THEIR DEPENDENCE ON BLACK LABOR

    The normalization of racial segregation by the NP did not address the real issue which has faced every White country, culture or authority since the start of White history: namely, the contradiction of allowing huge numbers of non-Whites into the territory in question to do the labor; whilst trying to prevent that civilization from being overwhelmed by foreign numbers. In fact, it cannot be done.

    White South Africa was no different in this regard to any of the previous White societies: the Aryans in India in the year 1500 BC, also lived in a country where the majority of the population was non-White: they too introduced all manner of laws trying to prevent racial mixing but all the while used the non-White labor. Eventually the sheer numbers of non-Whites grew to the point where it was no longer feasible to exercise control - simply put, the situation was reached where there were simply not enough Whites to control the entire territory, and the White civilization was overwhelmed by non-White numbers and sank.

    In South Africa, almost every White household had one or more Black servants, with farmers very often having dozens to work the huge farmlands, more often than not living on the premises; in the mines, the economic heart of the country, the vast majority of common laborers, numbering many thousands, were Black; all over the country the overwhelming majority of laborers were Black.

    Above: Central Johannesburg, mid 1970s: a White policeman checks a Black laborer's "pass book" - a document which entitled that Black person to be present in the White urban areas of South Africa provided that Black person had a job. Nothing better illustrated the inherent flaw in Apartheid than this state of affairs.

    Over this mass of economic integration, the Whites of South Africa attempted to enforce social segregation and still maintain a White government: it was doomed from the start, as it was in Aryan India, in ancient Persia, in ancient Sumeria, in ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece and ancient Rome.

    All that happened in South Africa that was different was that the number imbalance occurred even faster than in the older civilizations, and White control was overwhelmed at a quicker pace.

    Black Birth Rate JUMPS WITH WHITE AID

    At the same time, Western medicine was made available on a massive scale: the largest hospital in the Southern Hemisphere was erected in the Black township of Soweto, outside Johannesburg, specifically for the Black population. Infant mortality rates for Blacks, while still far higher than for Whites, fell dramatically, and were way below that of the rest of Black-ruled Africa. This rapid population growth, also typical of non-White populations residing in White ruled countries throughout history and elsewhere in the modern world, put additional pressure on the demographic makeup of the country.

    White Reaction

    The White government was forced to think out ever more stringent and oppressive laws to protect the Whites as the Black population continued to leapfrog in numbers year after year. Soon economics became a secondary issue in everyday politics when compared to the racial issue. Black resistance had also been growing along with the increase in that racial group's numbers.

    At first peaceful, the Black resistance groups turned to violence after it became clear that the White government was unmovable on certain basic issues, and failed to see the inherent contradiction between social segregation and economic integration.

    Finally, after a section of White policemen shot down 69 Blacks during a demonstration in Sharpeville to the south of Johannesburg in 1960, open violent political rebellion broke out amongst the Black population. The White government reacted by banning the main Black resistance organizations, the African National Congress (ANC) and the Pan Africanist Congress (the latter being an openly Black racist party which had separated from the ANC in 1959). These two organizations then launched a campaign of armed resistance to White government, which lasted some 30 years, with varying degrees of success. In reality however, despite large numbers of Blacks being co-opted into the state structures (in the form of police and army units) South Africa erupted into a long running low intensity race war, with Black and White physically fighting it out for political control. The Whites had the technological advantage; the Blacks always had the greater numbers.

    As the Black resistance was closely allied to the South African Communist Party it soon received large amounts of material aid from the Soviet Union (further fueling the allegations made by the White government that the Black resistance was a Communist inspired effort - an allegation that was of course untrue and made for propaganda purposes, as the Black resistance groups took aid from anyone who gave it to them, which included many fanatically anti-Communist Arab countries). The dividing issue was race, not ideology.

    South African Military

    Despite the aid to the Black resistance movements, the South African military was developed into a virtually self reliant extremely powerful force, certainly the strongest conventional force in all of Africa. The battle was however, apart from on the border in South West Africa (see below), never to be waged conventionally.

    The Black resistance movements adopted a guerrilla hit and run policy of attacks on strategic targets, in certain aspects ironically mimicking the Boer guerrilla war against the British of the period 1900-1902. To combat this unconventional war, the South African Police were given extended powers of detention and other draconian measures - all of which could only be short term fire fighting measures, as the main issue: that of preventing majority Black occupation of the country - was never addressed by any Apartheid laws.

    The Republic of South Africa

    In 1961, the South African government declared itself a republic and formally withdrew from the British commonwealth - the aspirations of Afrikaner independence had once again been fulfilled.

    Above: A poster issued during the 1961 referendum, makes the issue at stake very plain: either stay in the British led Commonwealth and be forced to accept Black rule, or break away and become a White ruled Republic. A slim majority of voters chose the White Republic option.

    The White Republic of South Africa was noted for many things, not the least of them many world first in technological breakthroughs. In this way the very first heart transplant was carried out by an Afrikaner, Chris Barnard, in the segregated hospital of Groote Schuur in Cape Town, in 1962; the first truly properly successful industrial plant which converted coal into oil was set up at Sasolburg in the Orange Free State (the technology had first been developed by the Germans during the Second World War at the Buna rubber plant at Auschwitz); the country became self reliant in the manufacture of arms and sophisticated weaponry (leading to a thriving arms export business) and also developed its own nuclear weapons.
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    Black Homelands Revisited

    At the same time the White government starting giving practical application to the policy of "Grand Apartheid". Imitating the British, independence was given to a number of traditional Black tribal homelands, the first in the mid 1970's.

    In this way, the White government deluded itself into thinking that Black political aspirations could be satisfied in the exercise of voting for these tribal homelands, despite huge numbers of these tribe members living outside the borders of these states - in the urban areas.

    This policy was naturally doomed: it never seriously addressed the issue of the use of Black labor in the White areas, and those Blacks who did agree to take up the reins of government in these Black homelands were (usually accurately) rejected as puppets of the Whites by the majority of Blacks.

    The White government also refused to adjust the size of these traditional tribal areas to fit in with the changed demographics, stubbornly insisting that their land area - some 13 percent of the country's surface area - could accommodate what was rapidly becoming over 80 percent of the total population.

    The White South African government - just like the Aryans in India - refused to accept the basic truth of racial dynamics: those who occupy a space determine the nature of the society in that space, irrelevant of to whom that space originally belonged. White South Africa's fate was sealed when the territorial division was not adjusted to fit in with the demographic realities; when all the effort was put into creating Black homelands and none put into creating a White "homeland" and the continued insistence upon the use of Black labor.

    Demographic Changes Force Social Change

    By 1990, there were approximately 5 million Whites in South Africa, and anywhere between 35 and 40 million non-Whites - the latter having had a population rate increase as staggering as that of the Black population in America.

    The Race War in Namibia

    The territory of South West Africa, made a mandate of South Africa in 1920 by the League of Nations, had also developed its own Black resistance movement along the lines of its South African counterparts, called the South West African Peoples Organizations (SWAPO). This organization then proceeded to launch its own campaign of violent resistance to the White government in that territory.

    As in South Africa itself, SWAPO received considerable Soviet support, and the South African army was deployed in large numbers in northern South West Africa for nearly twenty years, fighting a hot war against SWAPO insurgents, never being able to definitively beat SWAPO, as their guerrillas clearly operated with the overwhelming support of the locals (once again ironically mirroring the situation the British had faced with the Boer War. This was a problem which the British had solved by putting the Boer support base, the women and children, into concentration camps).

    Collapse of Portuguese Colonies


    In the interim, Portugal had set up two large colonies in Southern Africa: Angola on the west coast (from where a large number of Black slaves were sent to America) and Mozambique on the East coast. These colonies were ruled at first with an iron fist, but then gradually more leniently: finally the inhabitants of these colonies were all given Portuguese citizenship.

    However, the Black nationalists within these countries set up their own anti-colonial military organizations. Backed by the Soviet Union and Red China, these Black nationalists saw the Portuguese being dragged into an extended guerrilla war in the African bush, one which they could in reality never win. The situation dragged on inconclusively until 1974, when a coup in Portugal itself overthrew the government: overnight the new government simply withdrew its troops from Angola and Mozambique and washed their hands of the colonies.

    The collapse of the Portuguese colonial administration in Angola and Mozambique created additional military problems for the South Africans; suddenly their military intervention was required deep into the territories of both of these countries to prevent large scale incursions into South West and South Africa by Black resistance guerrillas. A number of conventional and non-conventional invasions followed in both of these countries, with South African troops very nearly occupying the capital of Angola, Luanda, in the late 1970's.

    Cuban Intervention


    However, a combination of international pressure and the arming of the new Black governments of Angola and Mozambique with modern sophisticated Soviet weapons and the arrival of thousands of Cuban troops in Angola, caused the South Africans to pull back, suffering their first large defeats: the South Africans were in many instances unable to match the advanced Soviet warplanes and lost the crucial total air superiority required for long range operations.

    The South Africans also provided material aid to local Black resistance groups fighting the Black governments in Angola and Mozambique in a largely successful attempt to destabilize those countries. All these strategies were well thought out militarily, but no political or military theory addressed the real issue which ultimately decided everything in Southern Africa: that of the changing and ever darkening demographic profile.

    Eventually, by the time that the protracted race war in South West Africa ended in 1990 (when the country was handed over to a SWAPO government) some 1,200 White soldiers had been killed, along with several hundred White civilians. Many thousands of SWAPO combatants, and a very large number of Black civilians died as well, the exact figures never having been finally established.

    Black Uprising and White Suppression


    Thus White South Africa found itself fighting a "hot" racial war on the border in South West Africa as well having to cope with an internal racial conflict, which grew each year as the demographics turned ever more quickly against the Whites.

    In 1976, a Black student uprising, started because Afrikaans was used as the language of instruction in Black schools, blew up into countrywide riots. Suppressed with the loss of over 500 Black lives, the Soweto riots, as they came to be known, marked a watershed in the racial divide in South Africa; from then on, international opinion was mobilized against White South Africa and the Black resistance movements were able to step up their campaign of internal violence.

    Above: White South African riot police remove the body of a Black demonstrator shot dead during the famous 1976 unrest. From that year onwards, the 60,000 strong South African Police, tasked with suppressing Black riots, fought an increasingly untenable war against this internal unrest, fuelled as it was by the massive shift in demographics which saw millions of Blacks flood into the urban areas.

    In the face of the increased pressure, South African nuclear scientists developed a number of nuclear weapons which were supposed to have been used in the event of a conventional invasion either by the West or by a Soviet led Black invasion from the north. These weapons were never used, and demolished in the 1990's, their existence only being formally acknowledged in 1993.

    "Unrest Situations"

    As the levels of Black resistance increased after 1976, so did the White state become ever more draconian in its legislation and activities: states of emergencies became increasingly common, and running race wars in urban and rural areas, known as "unrest situations" became routine news in the country.

    Ultimately it was a combination of internal violence and international pressure (in the form of sanctions) that finally persuaded the White government to throw in the towel and hand over to a Black government, a process which was started with a limited reform program in 1983.

    The partial reforms of the mid 1980's - which included the repealing of the laws forbidding mixed racial marriages and mixed racial political parties, combined with limited constitutional reforms which gave Indians and Coloreds their own parliamentary chambers, did little to stop the increasing violence. In fact, racial violence increased dramatically: the reforms created an unfulfilled revolution of rising expectations, and it was precisely during this cycle of Black violence and White counter violence that the racial war taking place inside the country exacted its highest death tolls ever.
    Last edited by Arend; 27 Jan 2008 at 19:29.
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  4. #19
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    ANC Unbanned

    In 1990, the White government finally faced the truth that it could no longer effectively control the ballooning Black population, and unbanned the ANC and released its leader, Nelson Mandela, from prison. Within four years an election based on universal suffrage was held: the 1994 election was won by the ANC with nearly two thirds of the votes cast.

    The decision by the White government to surrender power was contested by White hard-liners, who formed a number of opposition groups, none of whom were ultimately able to defeat the NP in any of the elections or two referendums that were held during the reform years of the mid 1980s and early 1990s. One hard-line group, the Afrikaner Resistance Movement (AWB) became increasingly militant and was responsible for a campaign of violence leading up to the first multi-racial elections in 1994. Twelve people were killed and hundreds injured in this violence: the perpetrators were however arrested and violent White resistance came to an end.

    A Beleaguered Minority

    Although Black on White crime had always been a factor in South Africa, the problem increased dramatically after Apartheid was formally abolished. The growth of huge shantytown squatter camps in and around the large South African cities brought with them a host of social ills which became a breeding ground for the criminality for which post Apartheid South Africa became famous.

    What is however never mentioned is the fact that the overwhelming majority of criminals are Black, and while their victims include Blacks just as commonly as Whites, the Whites suffer more from crime as a group in South Africa simply because they are demographically vulnerable and because they generally have more to steal. So even crime in South Africa has taken on a distinct racial tinge, as has been the case in Europe, Australia and North America as well.

    The Black government then started a policy of extreme affirmative action, appointing non-Whites into positions of authority merely because these posts were previously reserved for Whites, not because the newly appointed Black office holders were competent or qualified to hold these posts.

    This duplicated virtually exactly the institution of the Black former slave governments in the American Southern states after the end of the Civil War in that country - and led to a similar collapse in infrastructure and services.

    The White population in South Africa reacted predictably: those who could, generally left, going to other majority White countries to escape the openly anti-White policies of the new Black government, while those who could not leave, barricaded themselves into razor wire and burglar-barred "homes", all the while being taxed at one of the highest taxation rates in the world.

    Microcosm of a Rise and Fall

    Ultimately then, South Africa became a vitally important microcosm of White history: important because within the space of two hundred years (just over four generations) it traveled the full circle of the rise and fall of White civilizations as defined by the race of the country's inhabitants:

    • starting out with deeds of immense bravery (the settlement of new territory; the Great Trek);

    • then moving onto the establishment of independent states;

    • then allowing huge numbers of non-Whites into these territories as legal or illegal immigrants to do the labor;

    • then trying to segregate themselves from the growing numbers of non-Whites (at first by custom and then by law) while still using the non-White labor; and

    • then finally being overwhelmed by the changing demographics, by the change in the make-up of the population of those territories.

    This process was compressed even further in the short history of the White country of Rhodesia. This little country, whose White inhabitants never numbered more than 500,000, became the subject of one of the most vicious bush wars ever to have been fought between Whites and Blacks in Africa, and attracted condemnation from around the world.

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    South Africa and Rhodesia

    PART FOUR: "FIRST WITH DIGNITY" - THE STORY OF RHODESIA

    In many respects, the country of Rhodesia serves as a vivid example of the impossibility of a White minority trying to impose its rule by force over a non-White majority. Whites can only exist safely in their own homogenous regions, and cannot hope to survive over the long term in multi-racial countries. If this is the one lesson which can be learned from the tragi-drama which was Rhodesia, then it will have been worthwhile.

    RHODESIA FOUNDED BY CECIL JOHN RHODES

    The country known in history as Rhodesia (now called Zimbabwe) was created in 1888, when a Black tribal chief in the area, one Lobengula, granted a mining concession to the British Empire builder Cecil John Rhodes. Rhodes, who also served as the prime minister of the British Colony at the Cape, formed the British South Africa Company to settle the new region.

    Above: Cecil John Rhodes, after whom the country of Rhodesia was named.

    He considered it not only valuable for its mineral wealth but also for its strategic position: with the creation of a British colony to the north of the then independent Boer Republics, Rhodes must have thought of encircling the Boers with this move.

    Rhodes' desire to expand British territory was based on two pillars: primarily motivated by capitalist greed, he sought to extend his own personal wealth even further into the interior of Africa, and secondly by a desire to see all of Africa "painted red from the Cape to Cairo."

    It became one of the ironies of early White rule that the single most significant effect was a dramatic increase in Black numbers. In 1890, the estimated Black population was between 100,000 and 200,000, and within a matter of 50 years the population rocketed into the millions. This happened because the White settlers provided food, medicine and work for the Blacks, and also largely put a stop to the tribal warfare between the minority Matabeles and the majority Mashonas.

    Early Black Resistance

    The number of White settlers in the new region was tiny, and unlike South Africa, there were no regions which were either uninhabited or sparsely inhabited. The Black tribes - the Matabele and the Shona - soon started expressing their dissatisfaction with having been colonized by stealth through the innocuous granting of a mining license. A series of Black uprisings then took place: they were quickly suppressed by the tiny White minority through force of arms, with the last major uprising being put down in 1897/98.

    Slow Growth in White Numbers

    Very slowly the colony began to grow in terms of White numbers: mainly immigrants from Britain, but also a few Boers from South Africa, although they were always in the tiny minority amongst the Rhodesian White population. The region was named Rhodesia in 1894, in honor of Rhodes, and his British South Africa Company (BSAC) not only retained control but gradually extended its influence, so that by 1923, it held not only what was to become Rhodesia, but the present day countries of Zambia and Malawi as well.

    Self Governing Colony

    By the end of the First World War, the number of White settlers in the southern part of the BSAC's territory had grown to the point where they started demanding self government. In 1923, this request was acceded to by the British government, and the region became known as the British Colony of Southern Rhodesia, with the northern part becoming the British Colony of Northern Rhodesia, ruled directly from London through a Commissioner.

    Despite the relatively large numbers of White settlers, the Blacks constantly outnumbered the Whites by an ever increasing ratio. White rule was only maintained through a policy of military subjugation and surprisingly large scale Black acquiescence - but the latter situation would not remain so forever.

    RHODESIANS FIGHT FOR BRITAIN IN World War Two AND MALAYA

    As a loyal British colony, Southern Rhodesia sent a significant number of White colonists to Europe to fight for Britain: one prominent Rhodesian born member of the British Royal Air Force was named Ian Smith: he would later become prime minister of Rhodesia.

    In addition to serving Britain in World War Two, the Rhodesians also answered Britain's call to arms during the 1950s when that country faced a Communist guerilla uprising in Malaya. Rhodesia sent troops and equipment to defend British interests out of what later transpired to be a mistaken sense of loyalty to Britain - for when the time came, Britain was to show no loyalty to Rhodesia.

    The Winds of Change - RHODESIANS TOLD TO ACCEPT BLACK RULE

    The decolonization policy, followed by the British Empire after the end of the Second World War, saw Southern Rhodesia being included in a federation consisting of itself, Northern Rhodesia (later to be Zambia) and Nyasaland (later to be called Malawi). This federation lasted from 1953 to 1963, when it was dissolved in preparation for the independence of these states.

    However, the British government foresaw granting these states independence on the basis of universal suffrage and Black rule: by now, the White minority in Southern Rhodesia was far too ensconced to accept such a dispensation. In 1964, Northern Rhodesia gained its independence as Zambia, and Nyasaland as Malawi.

    The Unilateral Declaration of Independence - UDI

    Above: The leader of White Rhodesia, Ian Douglas Smith, casts his vote during a Rhodesian election.

    Although the British government had initially told the White Southern Rhodesians that they would be granted independence, this undertaking was reneged upon. Incensed at the betrayal - particularly because White Rhodesians had been so loyal to Britain in the past, the majority party in the Southern Rhodesian Parliament, then issued the famous UDI - or Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965. In 1970, the country declared itself a republic, changing its name from Rhodesia to the Republic of Rhodesia, and adopting a new flag, with a Latin logo: Nomine sit Digna - First with Dignity.

    Black Guerrilla Warfare

    Internally, two major Black-tribally based guerrilla organizations came into being. Gradually, over a 13 year period, they stepped up their attacks on the small White towns and isolated White farms to the point where cars had to move between the major centers in convoys for protection and dirt roads literally became minefields.

    It is worth emphasizing that the two major Black guerilla organizations, ZIPRA and ZANLA, were pure Marxist and Maoist organizations, with the former being supplied and armed by the Soviet Union and its allies, and the latter by Red China. The amount of aid given to these two organizations was massive. Without this aid, the Black guerilla war would - in all likelihood - not have been able to get off the ground.

    Although the arming of the Black guerilla organizations was part of an overall Communist strategy of opposing what it regarded as 'racist colonialists', it is so that the Communist groupings also saw Rhodesia as another chance to bring yet one more African country into the Communist circle of influence. Rhodesia then became an unhappy victim of the Cold War being played out in the world which set the USA and is allies against the Communist bloc.

    A large number of appalling atrocities were carried out on Whites unfortunate enough to fall into the Black guerrillas' hands; although the guerrillas were not averse to torturing and executing large numbers of their own people if they suspected any of them of collaboration with the White government.

    A vicious bush war then erupted, which in sheer combat terms, always saw the Rhodesian army win conventional engagements: however, the bulk of the war was fought on an unconventional basis with the majority of the Black population supporting the guerrillas.

    Simultaneously White medicine and other technological advances were shared with the Black population: their numbers shot up so that by the time of White Rhodesia's collapse in 1980, there were around 300,000 Whites and upwards of seven million Blacks in the country.

    Above: Rhodesian army soldiers patrol a track, awaiting a "terr" (terrorist) attack.

    1972 - THE BUSH WAR ERUPTS

    The Rhodesian bush war started in earnest on 21 December 1972 with a series of attacks by Black insurgents on farms in rural Rhodesia. The insurgents, trained in the Soviet Union and China, and jumping off from bases in the neighboring Black ruled country of Zambia (formerly the British colony of Northern Rhodesia) took advantage of the fact that the majority of the population was well disposed towards them, and that most of the White farmers had hundreds of Black workers, many of who were only too eager to betray their White masters.

    During 1973, the first of what became the operational areas inside Rhodesia was established: code named “Operation Hurricane”, the counter offensive was initially highly successful, with the number of armed Black insurgents inside Rhodesia dropping to less than 100 by 1974.

    That year also however saw the collapse of the Portuguese colonial rule in neighboring Mozambique, and the Black insurgents were able to open up a second line of infiltration from the east. By 1977, five new operational areas had been opened inside Rhodesia - code named Operation Thrasher, Repulse, Tangent, Splinter and Grapple, they covered the entire country and were the surest indicator yet that the war was not going to be a localized or limited affair.

    Above: The main Black insurgent infiltration routes and the Rhodesian counter insurgency operational areas inside the country. The Soviet backed Zanla was based in Mozambique, and the Red Chinese backed Zipra based in Zambia.
    STAAN OP MY VOLK. STAAN SAAM MY VOLK

    Is jy PARAAT?

  6. #21
    Burger Volksregister Boere's Avatar
    Aansluit Datum
    2007-Mar-Wed
    Plek
    Johannesburg Suid
    Poste
    880

    Verstek Re: Kort Geskiedenis van ons Volk

    Apartheid - Leerstelling verkondig en gesteun deur die Nasionale Party in Suid-Afrika, en die eerste keer 1n 1949 prominent aan die publiek gestel. Hoewel dit sy oorsprong het in n vroeere beginsel wat dwardeur die Suid Afrikaanse Geskiedenis gegeld het, en vroeer na verwys is as 'Segregasie' het die idee van apartheid wereldwye polemiek uitgelok. Die basiese idee behels die afsonderlikke ontwikkeling, vestiging, ekonomiese bestaan en bestuur van die blanke en nie-blanke rasse in Suid Afrika. Dit word onderskei as gebieds-apartheid, maatskaplike apartheid, ekonomiese apartheid, ens. Die leerstelling is in sowel die Algemene Vergadering van die Verenigde Volke as elders in die buiteland heftig aangeval.

  7. #22
    Registrasie B Lid Volksregister Arend's Avatar
    Aansluit Datum
    2007-Mar-Fri
    Plek
    Oos Rand
    Poste
    7,828

    Verstek Ant: Kort Geskiedenis van ons Volk

    Apartheid het eintlik sy ontstaan in die buiteland gehad. Die Amerikaners het dit toegepas en ook die Engelse. Die vroegste vorm van apartheid in ons land het in die vroeë Kaap voorgekom toe gemengde huwelike verbied was deur een van die vroeë Goewerneurs. Basters soos hulle toe bekend gestaan het moes eenkant woon, kon nie skoolgaan saam met die wit kinders nie en daar was ook allerhande ander regulasies wat gegeld het vir hulle. Die blankes wat toe baster kinders by die slawe gehad het het saam met hulle eenkant gewoon. So het die Kleurling gemeenskap ontstaan.
    STAAN OP MY VOLK. STAAN SAAM MY VOLK

    Is jy PARAAT?

  8. #23

    Verstek Re: Kort Geskiedenis van ons Volk

    Ek dink dit is 'n baie belangrike draad vir ons jong mense aangesien dit nie meer op skool geleer word nie. Ek hoop van harte dat dierdie draad kan voort gaan met nog geskiedenis, miskien tot en met die einde '80's.

    Dit is ook belangrik om ons te herinder aan die stukkie belangrike geskiedenis wat vandag weer besig is om homself te herhaal.

Bladsy 2 van 2 EersteEerste 12

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